The 10 Biggest IPOs Ever to Hit the U.S. Market

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While 2014 thus far has been a banner year for the IPO market, none of this year's companies crack the list of 10 biggest IPOs ever.

Biggest IPOsAccording to IPO investment firm Renaissance Capital, 40 companies have been priced in the United States in 2014 and have raised a total of $7.2 billion. Eight of the 10 IPOs on this list raised at least that much in a single deal.

While tech IPOs often receive the most hype, this list features companies from numerous industries, including telecommunications, automotive, and food.

Here are the biggest IPOs to ever be listed in the United States and the financial information behind them...

The 10 Biggest IPOs Ever

Visa Inc. (NYSE: V) made its public debut on March 18, 2008, and raised $17.9 billion, making it the largest U.S. IPO of all time. Shares were priced at $44 at the time of the IPO. The lead underwriters on the IPO were JPMorgan Chase & Co. (NYSE: JPM) and Goldman Sachs (NYSE: GS), but the deal required an additional 17 underwriters. In its first month of trading, V stock climbed 22%. Investors who have held the stock since its IPO are sitting on a gain of 250% today.

ENEL SpA is no longer listed in the United States, but on Nov. 11, 1999, the company listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The Italian power company raised $16.5 billion in its initial public offering. The stock was removed from the NYSE due to low trading volumes in 2007. The head underwriter on the deal was Merrill Lynch.

Facebook Inc. (Nasdaq: FB) raised more than $16 billion in its initial public offering on May 17, 2012. The social media IPO created huge buzz, but the stock stumbled out of the gate. After three months of trading, the stock had fallen nearly 53%. Despite the early hiccup, FB stock has posted a return of nearly 90% since its public debut. The stock was initially priced at $38 per share.

General Motors Co. (NYSE: GM) was delisted in 2009 following the automaker's bankruptcy and the $50 billion government bailout it received. On Nov. 17, 2010, the company relisted on the NYSE and raised $15.8 billion by selling 478 million shares at $33. GM stock was trading below $20 per share in July 2012, but has since rebounded. Long-term investors have gained 7% on the stock since its IPO.

Deutsche Telekom was the world's third-largest telecommunications firm when it raised $13.2 billion in its Nov. 17, 1996, initial public offering. In the United States the company was listed on the NYSE, but the majority of shares were sold in Germany. Deutsche Telekom sold 623 million shares, which was a 25% stake in the company. The lead underwriter on the deal was Goldman Sachs.

AT&T Wireless Group sold 360 million shares at $29.50 each when it went public on April 26, 2000. The $10.6 billion it raised that day make it the sixth-largest IPO in U.S. history. AT&T Wireless was the mobile division of AT&T Inc. (NYSE: T). The stock closed its first day of trading at $31.75.

Kraft Foods Group Inc. (Nasdaq: KRFT) went public on June 12, 2001, and raised $8.7 billion. The food conglomerate sold 280 million shares at $31 each. The IPO valued the company at more than $54 billion, and at the time it was the largest publicly traded food company in the United States. The company listed on the NYSE, and Credit Suisse Group (NYSE ADR: CS) served as the lead underwriter on the deal.

France Telecom sold 22.5% of its stock on Oct. 17, 1997, for a total of $7.3 billion. In the United States, the company was listed on the NYSE, and shares were also offered in Paris. Merrill Lynch was the lead underwriter on the initial public offering. The France Telecom IPO took place less than a year after another major European communications IPO - Deutsche Telekom.

Telstra Corp. is another major telecommunications company that went public in the 1990s, this one on Nov. 17, 1997. The Australian company was founded in 1901 but only went public after the Australian government deregulated the telecommunications industry. Telstra sold 33% of the company for $5.6 billion.

Swisscom rounds out the list of the top 10 IPOs, having raised nearly $5.6 billion during its Oct. 4, 1998, initial public offering. Like other European companies on the list, Swisscom went public after the privatization of the telecommunications industry in Switzerland. The company sold more than 22 million shares for the steep price of $253 each. Those shares represented 30% of the company.

Are there any upcoming IPOs this year that you have your eye on? What will be the next great IPO? Join the conversation on Twitter @moneymorning using #IPOs.

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